ARBORETUMUL SIMERIA



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ARBORETUMUL SIMERIA
               
MONUMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
ing. Flaviu POPESCU; dr.ing.Stelian RADU; ing. Corina COANDA
Forest Research and Management Institute - Station Simeria
               
The originality and lay-out value of landscapes from the 50 parcels of the park (70 ha) is put on a different relief, having lakes and sources, with groves and winding alleys, all combined in a natural dynamic and almost new assembly.
The entrance in Arboretum is marked by the solemnity of pyramidal oaks, having vegetation from with symmetrical outline combined with the white architectural background of the building and with its pillars. The 2 access point symmetrical disposed specific to nobility buildings, a lunge carpet of juniper-tree (Juniperus sabina L.) from rich are rising 2 brush samples that have umbrella corona (Sophora japonica L. var. pendula Zbl. And Morus alba L. var. pendula Dipp.) outlined at the external parts with a border of roses.
Standing on the northern terrace of the building opposite the entrance, it can be seen an amazing landscape.

The layout structure is realized through the forms combination, the greatness characteristic for the monumental trees that have tabular coronas at maturity age (Pinus strobus L.), fastigiate (Thuja plicata Mast.) or pendent (Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D.Don.) Spach.), with regularity of globular coronas (Prunus serulata Lindl., Buxus sempervirens L. var. arborescens L., Buxus sempervirens L. var. suffruticosa) and the bamboo curtain (Phyllostachys viridi - glaucescens A.&C. Riviere). The rate between volumes and spaces, between grandeur and delicacy, the contrast between lights and shadows, the nice color combination envelop the whole terrace in glamour and harmony.
Coming down from the upper terrace to the center of the park, on the winding alleys, having abrupt or soft slopes under the vault of Buxus you can get into the vegetal paradise of park.

We get at the lake area, shining mirrors, which reflect monumental samples of pyramidal oaks (Quercus robur var. fastigiata (Lam.) Schw., Taxodium distichum L. and Metasequoia glyptostroboides). On the quiet surface of the lakes there are resting red and white water lilies, and this pictures offers the possibility of landscape layout contemplation. Trees and exotic or native brushes, leafy and resinous trees having coronas with different forms and highs, are aligned into a harmony of colors and nuances, and lights and shadows masking one of the most wanted and nicest place in the park. The main alleys are large and sinusoidal show the landscape and tree riches using the alternation and the contrast between colors, nuances and forms given by vegetation disposing in many plans, and groves with brushes and perennial plants. The soft or sharp passing from sunny areas to shadow corners urges visitor's interest and attention.

The secondary alleys, narrow, have a winding aspect being curved, developing pictures and perspectives or changes of spectacular structures, just by doing a few steps.
Trees and decorative bushes, having abundant flowering, are lacing the alleys and the limits of massive, remembering grace and elegance of Asian gardens (Japanese and Chinese).
The Strei - river - crosses the park trough an artificial channel and goes softly to the Mures River.
The first areas, described above, lies on the upper terrace till to Strei channel. The layout picture has a restricted area (5.4 ha), a great variety of landscapes made by various species of bushes and trees, lakes sources all of then being put on a various relief, without giving an artificial impress.
In the second area, situated between Strei - channel and Mures River, the relief is almost flat, and the architecture and landscape effect combine the exotic elements with the natural vegetation existing on the river meadow. The natural vegetation powerful developed, disposed mainly into stairs, having numerous impenetrable tickets, offer a various scale of associations and aspects: riverside locust - trees, riverside coppice with white and black poplars, with bodies covered by ivy (Hedera helix D.C.) or Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch., representing fragments from ex-bushes that lived on the riverside meadows, having a wild forest (virgin) aspect.

They intersect with bunches of exotic resinous (Juniperus virginiana L. and pine collections) and exotic leafy (Juglans sp., Carya sp., etc) rarely groves, glades with lonely gigantic trees, that have grandiose forms (oaks, poplars, plane - tree, magnolia) all being grafted on the natural vegetation structure of river meadow. In this way it is released a great layout diversity (mixes of native and exotic species) and a rare landscape diversity. At these are addes the delicate passing to small pure groups of resinous having structured and chromatic combination that contrast with the leafy, although they are integrated harmoniously into the assembly unity of landscape.
The chromatic change series due to succession of seasons in spectacular and only a good understanding of landscape architecture may lead to a better knowledge and labor appreciation during the centuries in the planning and harmony creation of landscapes and beauties of Arboretum Simeria.

From the multitude of landscapes that develop all over the year, we have to remember the "magnolia symphony" a real overflow of purity and delicateness. The great number of species (10) but also the magnolia samples, with an abundant flowering and having a chromatic rarely found trough the country, increases considerable the beauty and elegance of Arboretum, leaving unforgettable impression on visitor's missed.
The "magnolia symphony" starts in the second half of the March (Magnolia kobus D.C., Magnolia denudata Desr., Magnolia stellata (S&Z) Maxim.), in April are Magnolia x soulangiana Soulange-Bodin, Magnolia liliflora Desr., Magnolia tripetala L., Magnolia obovata Thunb., and the end it is marked in July by Magnolia macrophylla Michns. and Magnolia virginiana L.
It's a real and wise collaboration between man and nature. The luxurious increases the quality of landscapes and the high level of maintenance, can be noticed even by an unauthorized a visitor, who hardly imagine the great number and the intensity of attempt that led to this oases of beauty and purity. This attempts were many and various catastrophic overflows (in 1970, 1974 and 1975); the soft snows (1958); the storms (1960, 1962, 1969, 1992); prolonged droughts (1946 - 1947, 1950, 1984, 1996); severe colds (1963, 1985); elms drying (after 1959) the descending of subsoil water and not the last industrial pollution.
The efforts and the special passion, constantly showed trough the years by a registered collective of ICAS Station Simeria made healthy again the wonderful park.

Photo: Radu Stelian, Corina Coanda, Jan Dobbelmann

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